Black Pepper : Market Analysis 2020

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Origin of Black Pepper

Black pepper is a mature berry of piper nigrum, a spice found in parts of southern India. Originated in hills of south western Ghats of India, black pepper is also cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, Shri Lanka, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brazil, Mexico and Guatemala.


Because of its biological traits, this particular spice is mostly cultivated in areas which have well distributed annual rainfall of 125-200 Cm along with hot and humid climate which would be an added advantage for black pepper manufacturer and spice suppliers in India since it accounted an average rainfall of 558 MM last year.

Varieties of Black Pepper

In India over 75 varieties of black pepper are grown. Following are some varieties of black pepper cultivated in India.

Varieties of Black Pepper Regions
Karimunda Kerala
Kottanandan South Kerala
Naryakodi Central Kerala
Aimpiriyan Wynad
Neelamundi Idukki
Kuthiravally Kozhikode and Idukki
Balancotta North Kerala
Kalluvallay North Kerala
Malligesara Karnataka
Uddagare Karnataka

India has world class institutes and labs which are making some ground- breaking discoveries in developing hybrid varieties of Black Pepper. Seventeen varieties of black pepper have been released for cultivation. Panniyur-1, Panniyur-3, Panniyur-8 are hybrids evolved at Pepper Research Station (Panniyur, Kerala). IISR Garimunda and IISR Malabar Excel are other hybrids released from Indian Institute of spice research Kozhikode, Kerala.

Global Production of Black Pepper

The rate of black pepper suppliers and black pepper manufacturers is continuously growing. Vietnam, Indonesia, and India are top producer of black pepper which is used as seasoning and as spice. Vietnam is the world leader in production of black pepper producing 163000 tonnes which is 34% of world production. Following table shows the countries producing black pepper.

Rank Country Production
(In Thousand Tonne)
1 Vietnam 163
2 Indonesia 89
3 India 53
4 Brazil 42
5 China 31



Even though India accounts a lesser share in the production of black pepper, there are several varieties of black pepper cultivated only in India. Also, numerous spice suppliers, spice manufacturers, spice wholesalers and traders and involved actively in procuring all grades of black pepper asked by the buyers without any hassles or difficulties.

Production of Black Pepper in India

India has three states which produce black pepper although the volume and quality which they produce are worth noticing. Following table shows the production of black pepper in India in the last five years.

Major Spice/State wise production of Black Pepper (In Tonnes)

States 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19(Est)
Karnataka 23000 31000 35000 21000
Kerala 21000 20000 22000 17000
Tamil Nadu 1500 2000 2000 3000
Total 48500 57000 64000 48000


Since the last five years Karnataka has led India in producing black pepper followed by Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Also, there has been a steady rise in production which implies that spice manufacturers and spice traders have a wide scope to boost their presence in the market due to the rising demand of this particular spice.

Countries where Black Pepper is Exported from India:

Since the last five years Karnataka has led India in producing black pepper followed by Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Also, there has been a steady rise in production which implies that spice manufacturers and spice traders have a wide scope to boost their presence in the market due to the rising demand of this particular spice.

Table showing top five countries where Black Pepper is exported from India

2016-17 2017-18
Country Qty(Tonnes) Value(Lakhs) Qty Value
U.S.A. 8128 52679 6376 31094
U.K. 1868 11738 2250 8978
Germany 972 7905 916 6715
Sweden 1034 7804 833 5018
Canada 361 2306 731 3564

Developed countries are the top buyers of Indian Black Pepper along with countries like Japan, Netherlands, Australia, France, Spain, U.A.E. and Turkey.

There has been a constant rise in export of black pepper from India. In the year 2017-18, India accounted for an export of 16840 Tonnes valuing 82078 Lakhs in revenue. This shows a profitable future for black pepper manufacturers, spice manufacturers and spice wholesalers. Moreover, the Government of India has framed a lot of export-oriented policies which makes India a booming market for export of black pepper and other herbs & spices.

Global Demand of Black Pepper

The black pepper market is directly influenced by the growing processed food industry. The rise in consumption of bakery products, confectionery products, and ready-to-eat and fried food in the developed economies is driving the market for the spice. The recent trend of using natural flavour enhancer has also catalysed the growth of the global market.

In the year 2013-15, the global pepper consumption is estimated at around 400,000 tons and has been increasing steadily. Increasing demand from Far East countries, which have started using more pepper in cooking, has been quite significant in driving the global black pepper market. Growth in the cosmetics industry is also directly influencing the pepper market.

Driven by increasing demand for pepper worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to decelerate, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.2% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 840K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Uses of Black Pepper

Pepper is widely used by meat packers and in baking considering its preservative value. It is also used as a seasoning in various Indian dishes. One of the most famous Indian dish where high quality pepper is required to maintain taste is Hydrebadi Biryani and Pulav. Along with that it is also used in non-alcoholic beverages, candies, baked food, certain types of cheese and condiments.


Black Pepper also possesses highly effective medicinal value and its benefits are also mentioned in one of the most prominent book of Indian medicine “Charak Samhita”. It has some magical healing powers like:

  • Curing Vertigo
  • Anti-Bacterial Properties
  • Cholesterol Control
  • Revival from Cough and Cold
  • Improvement of Dental Health
  • Anti- Depressant

Some famous dishes

  • Roasted Lamb
  • Biryani
  • Pulav
  • Paneer and Potato Curry
  • Vegan Mac and Cheese

Different Names in Different Culture

  • Spain- Pimienta
  • France- Poivre
  • Germany- Pfeffer
  • Netherlands- Peppar
  • Russia- Pyerets
  • China- Hu-Chiao
  • Japan- Kosha
  • Italy- Pepe
  • Portugal- Pimenta

Different Names in India:

  • Hindi: Kali Mirch
  • Bengal: Kala Morich
  • Gujarati: Mari
  • Karnataka: Kare Menasu
  • Kashmir: Marutis
  • Kerala: Kurumulaku


Black Pepper is called king of spices because of its medicinal value and exotic flavour. Internationally, demand for black pepper is increasing across the world which gives black pepper manufacturers, spice traders and spice exporters tremendous opportunity to expand their business across the globe by exporting spices and herbs consistently.

If you’re thinking about exporting black pepper either to a wholesaler, retailer or a supplier of black pepper, now is the right time to act upon. The market of spices and herbs is an open season for all spice traders around the world !

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